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No. Saboteur (1942) (1942) has an original screenplay. Sabotage (1936) (1936) has a screenplay based on Joseph Conrad's novel, The Secret Agent. The stories of these two Hitchcock films are unrelated.
Incidentally, Secret Agent (1936) is a 1936 Hitchcock film with a screenplay based on W. Somerset Maugham's novel, Ashenden. It has nothing to do with Joseph Conrad's novel or Sabotage.
Saboteur is one of Hitchcock's "wrong man" pictures, in which the protagonist is falsely accused of a crime. It is especially similar to one of his earlier British films, The 39 Steps (1935) (1935). Each film features a "wrong man" burdened with a blonde who refuses to believe he is innocent. Both films have the motif of the hero fleeing in handcuffs; and the difficulties this situation creates. In "The 39 Steps" hero & heroine are even handcuffed together. Edit
Chicago Tribune, January 7, 1942, p. 19:
LOOKING AT HOLLYWOOD
. . . . Alfred Hitchcock sent for Elisha Cook Jr. to talk over an important role in "Saboteur," but when Elisha arrived the next day Hitch said: "It's all off. I'm sorry to say. I saw you in the "Maltese Falcon" last night and if I used you you'd be a dead giveaway for my plot. Edit